«Гимназия №40 г. Тараз, Казахстан Урок сопоставительной грамматики. Tilmanbetova R.K. Form 11B Date – 28.04.15 Lesson 6Theme: Linking devices. Revision of ...»
Подготовка учащихся 11 классов к ЕНТ
Тильманбетова Рабига Кенесбаевна
Гимназия №40 г. Тараз, Казахстан
Урок сопоставительной грамматики.
Date – 28.04.15
Lesson 6Theme: Linking devices. Revision of linkers. REVISION LESSON.
Aims: - to control the students’ knowledge of the grammar theme “Linking devices”, some facts from Country Study, some idioms and Complex Object.
to improve the students’ analytical skills
to develop the students’ generalizing skills
Equipment: Headway Upper-Intermediate level Students Book/ Workbook; copies of some facts from Country study, idioms, tests.
I. Preliminaries and Warm-up.
Discussing of the lesson aims and results.Checking of the students’ homework: To learn some phrases, to revise the rule of Complex Object.
II. Presentation. Linking devices. Revision of linkers.Idioms, some facts from Country Study.
III. Practice and Production.
Revision of the rule Complex Object and doing the test, analysis of mistakes.
IV. Conclusion and homework.
Estimate your knowledge before and after the lesson.
Homework: To revise the rule of Conditionals, learn the idioms and the facts from Country Study. W/B ex. 1 p. 75
I. Checking of the homework: in pairs students ask each other the phrases.
Last year, when I won that medal, I really was … (on cloud nine).
To roll in money. (Купаться в деньгах)
To act/play the fool. (Валять дурака).
This is where I draw the line. – I will not do more.
To make somebody blush. – Загонять кого-то в краску.
To get oneself together. – Взять себя в руки.
To make both ends meet. – Сводить концы с концами.
A sound mind in a sound body. – В здоровом теле-здоровый дух.
To cover up one’s tracks. – Заметать следы.
To pull oneself together. – Взять себя в руки.
In short. – Короче говоря.
To be turned upside down. – Вверх дном.
You really take the cake. - You really win the prize.
To make the cup run over. – Наполнить чашу через край.
A fat cat. – Somebody rich and famous.
A bird may be known by its song. – Птицу можно узнать по полету.
Little and sweet. – Мал золотник, да дорог.
To give up the game. – Выйти из игры.
To get out of bed on the wrong side. – Встать с левой ноги.
II. Presentation. Linking devices. Revision of linkers.
Linking words and phrases
Although some of these words have already been mentioned as sentence connectors, they can also be used to develop coherence within a paragraph, that is linking one idea / argument to another. Print off this page to keep as a reference of useful linking words and phrases.
Sequence Result Emphasis
First / firstly, second / secondly, third / thirdly etc
Next, last, finally
In addition, moreover
Further / furthermore
To summarise So
As a result
As a consequence (of)
Due to Undoubtedly
Particularly / in particular
Addition Reason Example
In addition / additionally / an additional
As well as For
Because of For example
That is (ie)
Although / even though
Despite / in spite of
In contrast (to) / in comparison
On the other hand
On the contrary Similarly
compare(d) to / with
Not only...but also
Write the sentence again, using the word in brackets. The meaning must stay exactly the same.
1. She is a very good English speaker. You would think it was her native language.
2. There were so many people in the room that we couldn't move.
3. We missed the film because there was such a lot of traffic.
4. I can't wear this coat in winter, It's not warm enough.
5. When he speaks English, I can't understand what he says.
6. We lost the match although we we the better team.
7. In spite of not having eaten for 24 hours, I didn't feel hungry.
___________________________________________________________________ (even though)
8. Despite her injured foot, she managed to walk to the village.
9. The football match is still going on.
10. Has Jane got divorced yet?
11. Jack used to have long hair and a beard.
___________________________________________________________________ (no longer)
12. I was feeling tired.
___________________________________________________________________ (any longer)
13. I wish I could speak English as well as you do.
14. Both in January and in February, the price of basic foods rose.
15. He had hoped to do better in the examination.
16. John is younger than he looks.
17. Tom is 16 years old, and so is Fred.
18. He used to be a doctor.
19. You're not reading that newspaper. Can I read it?
20. He was sitting on the beach when the sun rose.
21. You can go to the party if you don't come home very late.
22. When he arrives, we'll go.
23. They think that he is the best person for the job.
Transition word exerciseAlways ask yourself what the exact relationship is between the sentences or parts of sentences. Are you leading to the result of something? Are you making a deduction? Are you introducing some contradictory evidence or ideas? Your choice of word or phrase obviously depends on this. And always check in a good dictionary if you're not quite sure about a word's use or its position in a sentence. Remember that punctuation will affect what you use.Insert the best alternative1. Polls show that Tony Blair is the most popular Prime Minister this century. ______________, there are even members of his own party who are uneasy with his approach.
In particular However For instance
2. There are some slight variations in temperature, but ________________ 26 to 27C should be expected.
consequently otherwise as a rule
3. The two main Channel Islands, ________________ Jersey and Guernsey, are much closer to France than to England.
for example namely in particular
4. It was announced that nurses' working hours would be increased by 25%. ______________, even fewer trainee nurses are expected to join the profession.
As a result So that Likewise
5. Sales of CDs have experienced a small but steady fall over the past 12 months. _____________, vinyl records have seen an increase in their share of the market, up to 1.7%.
Above all Correspondingly In contrast
6. The Vice Chancellor explained that in light of the current financial climate and because of unexpected bad debts, it would be necessary to peg salary levels at their current level for all grades of staff. ______________, no-one was getting a pay rise.
Nevertheless In other words Similarly
7. It is clear, therefore, that the situation in Brazil will improve only slowly. ______________ the economic problems being experienced in Japan, the outlook is slightly more optimistic.
Furthermore In comparison With reference to
8. In order to try to reduce car use in the inner cities, the government has announced new restrictions on company parking spaces and ______________, a new tax on individual car use.
as well as in addition in the same way
9. Essays must be handed in by the deadline, ______________ they will not be marked.
obviously otherwise as a result
10. ______________ it has been shown that fractures can occur at even relatively low pressures, the use of the material should not be completely discounted.
Nevertheless Because Even though
Transition word exercise
Answers1. Polls show that Tony Blair is the most popular Prime Minister this century.
However, there are even members of his own party who are uneasy with his approach.However indicates that what follows is something of a contradiction or an exception.
2. There are some slight variations in temperature, but as a rule 26 to 27C should be expected.As a rule shows you are about to make a generalisation.3. The two main Channel Islands, namely Jersey and Guernsey, are much closer to France than to England.You are actually naming the two islands mentioned, so namely is used.
4. It was announced that nurses' working hours would be increased by 25%. As a result , even fewer trainee nurses are expected to join the profession.The second sentence is a result or consequence of the first. So that must be followed by a verb.
5. Sales of CDs have experienced a small but steady fall over the past 12 months.In contrast , vinyl records have seen an increase in their share of the market, up to 1.7%.The second sentence contrasts vinyl with CDs.
6. The Vice Chancellor explained that in light of the current financial climate and because of unexpected bad debts, it would be necessary to peg salary levels at their current level for all grades of staff. In other words , no-one was getting a pay rise.The second sentence says the same as the first, but in a much simpler way (reformulation).
7. It is clear, therefore, that the situation in Brazil will improve only slowly. With reference to the economic problems being experienced in Japan, the outlook is slightly more optimistic.The second sentence deals with a new aspect/point.
8. In order to try to reduce car use in the inner cities, the government has announced new restrictions on company parking spaces and in addition, a new tax on individual car use.Reinforcement of the idea; an extra point. As well as must be immediately followed by a noun or verb.
9. Essays must be handed in by the deadline, otherwise they will not be marked.The second part is a consequence of the first.
10. Even though it has been shown that fractures can occur at even relatively low pressures, the use of the material should not be completely discounted.
The idea of concession again; the second part is somewhat unexpected.
Food idioms:As cool as a cucumber – совершенно спокойный; big cheese – важная персона, pie in the sky – несбыточная мечта, icing on the cake – изюминка, самое приятное; in a nutshell – короче говоря;bread and butter – средства к существованию и т.д.
Jack was looking at the snake as cool as a cucumber — Джек смотрел на змею совершенно спокойно.
Body idioms:Bad blood – вражда, save one`s breath – не тратить лишних слов, dead from the neck up – глупый как пробка, get the cold shoulder – получить холодный прием, contemplate one’s navel – обсуждать собственные проблемы, have butterflies in one`s stomach – чувствовать нервную дрожь и т.д.
Every time Lucy saw Harry she had butterflies in her stomach — Каждый раз, когда Люси видела Гарри, она чувствовала нервную дрожь.
Colour idioms:Red tape – бюрократия, black and blue – в синяках, blue blood – аристократическое происхождение, chase rainbows – гнаться за невозможным, gray matter – мозги, green-eyed monster– ревность, red herring – отвлекающий аргумент в споре и т.д.
Red tape hinders social progress — Бюрократия мешает общественным успехам.
Love idioms:Blind date – свидание с незнакомым человеком, find Mr. Right – найти свою половинку, go dutch – каждый платит за себя, have a thing for – питать слабость к кому-то, settle down – остепениться и т.д.
Each and every girl dreams of finding Mr. Right — Все без исключения девушки мечтают найти свою половинку.
Medical idioms:Alive and kicking – в добром здравии, as pale as a ghost – бледный как полотно, bitter pill to swallow– тягостная необходимость, couch doctor – психоаналитик, go under the knife – лечь на операцию,head shrinker – психиатр, just what the doctor ordered – как раз то, что нужно и т.д.
A plateful of hot broth was just what the doctor ordered after a walk in the cold countryside — Полная тарелка горячего бульона была как раз тем, что нужно, после прогулки по холодной деревне.
Weather idioms:Bolt from the blue – полная неожиданность, come rain or shine – в любых условиях, a fine day for young ducks – дождливый день, in a fog – в замешательстве, stem the tide – идти против течения и т.д.
The news about his younger sister getting married to his friend was a bolt from the blue — Известие о том, что его младшая сестра выходит замуж за его друга, стало полной неожиданностью.
B. Make up sentences with some of these idioms to show their meanings. S1-S2-S3 etc.
С. Some Facts from Country Study.
1. What is the Barbican?
a) a river b) a fish c) an art gallery d) a hotel
2. What park is Speaker’s Corner in?
a) Kensington Gardens b) St. James’s Park c) Hyde Park d) Green Park
3. What London street is famous for shops?
a) Oxford Street b) Whitehall c) Soho d) Bloomsbеry4. What London street is famous as the centre of journalists?
a) Leicester Square b) Piccadilly Circus c) Fleet Street d) Bond Street
5. What is the name of the London Royal Opera House?
a) The National Theater b) Old Vic Theater c) Covent Garden d) the Barbican
6. What is Whitehall?
a) a financial center b) a street where government offices are situated c) a street of beautiful shops d) a palace
7. A statue of Eros is situated…
a) in Trafalgar Square b) in Leicester Square c) in Bond Street d) in Piccadilly Circus
8. What is Soho?
a) The district of cinema – producers
b) a loading house district
c) a street where the prominent representatives of medical profession live
d) the centre of government offices
9. What is Eisteddfod?
a) a city b) a festival c) a dance d) a country
10. What is haggis?
a) a dress b) a toy c) a drink d) a dish
Answers: 1c 2c 3a 4c 5c 6b 7d 8a 9b 10d
11. The capital of Canada is … (Ottawa).
12. London became extremely prosperous during … (the 16th century).
13. The tallest sight in Washington, D.С. is (US Capitol).
14. The British Parliament consists of … (2 Houses: the house of Commons/Lords).
15. Jonathan Swift wrote … (“Gulliver’s Travels”).
16. The “Speaker’s Corner” in London is situated in … (Hyde Park).
17. The anthem of the USA is … (The Star-Spangled Banner).
18. The oldest royal residence is … (The Tower of London).
19. The national emblem of Scotland is … (the thistle).
20. “Nelson’s Column” is a name of a … (monument).
III. Practice and Production.
Revision of the rule Complex Object and doing the following test.
Do the test Complex Object.
1. I heard Miss Jenkins … Julie not to do that.
A. to tell B. tell C. have told D. told E. being told
2. The teacher made me … the task once again.
A. did B. doing C. do D. has done E. to do
3. I was made … the task once again.
A. to do B. do C. doing D. to have done E. being done
4. Everyone expected his business … within the three months.
A. fail B. failing C. have has failed D. to fail E. be failing
5. Sarah has offered … us up for the weekend.
A. to put B. putting C. put D. have put E. puts
6. I didn’t expect our History teacher … us so much homework.
A. giving B. give C. to give D. to giving E. has given
7. Our teacher made the whole class … after the lessons because we had been so noisy.
A. staying B. to stay C. for staying D. stay E. be staying
8. I saw him … you a letter yesterday.
A. gave B. have given C. had given D. being given E. give
9. The doctor wants Bob … in bed for a couple of days.
A. to stay B. stay C. staying D. will have stayed E. has stayed
10. When I walked past the classroom I saw them … the test.
A. writing B. write C. was writing D. wrote E. have written
11. I saw him … the house, … into his car, and … away.
A. leave, sit, go B. leaving, sitting, going C. leaves, sits, goes
D. left, sat, went E. had left, had sat, had gone
12. I saw Christiano Ronaldo … the winning goal in the FA Cup Final.
A. scored B. score C. was scoring D. had scored E. had been scoring
13. We went to the park to watch them … table tennis.
A. are playing B. were playing C. play D. to play E. have played
14. I heard the telephone … but I didn’t answer.
A. rang B. rung C. ringing D. to ring E. have been ringing
15. We like to watch the basketball team ….
A. will play B. play C. to play D. to playing E. plays
16. A few years ago, I saw a dog … the child from fire.
A. rescue B. rescued C. has rescued D. had rescued E. was rescued
17. The boy watched the butterfly … from its cocoon.
A. emerged B. emerge C. have emerged D. has emerged E. had emerged
18. When I had to make an emergency phone call, the secretary let me … her phone.
A. using B. used C. have used D. to use E. use
19. The flight attendants made all the passengers … their seat belts before the plane took off.
A. to buckle B. to have buckled C. buckling D. buckle E. had buckled
20. He was encouraged … for study at the Art Academy.
A. applying B. apply C. to apply D. to have applied E. had applied
21. He was made … for being rude with her.
to apologize B. apologize C. apologizing D. to be apologizing
E. to have apologized
22. I listened to the teacher … how to solve the math problem.
A. explain B. will explain C. was explaining D. explained
E. had explained
23. I held out my hand and watched each snowflake … as soon as it touched my skin.
A. melted B. melt C. was melting D. will have melted E. had melted
24. When I look at my teacher … the rope, it looks easy, but when I try it, it is hard.
A. climbed B. is climbing C. climbing D. has climbed E. being climb
25. It is educational for children to observe adults … their daily tasks.
A. performed B. are performing C. have performed
D. have been performing E. perform
Students check up the answers.
Analyze the mistakes.
Homework: To learn the idioms and the facts from Country Study.