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TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u 1. Составьте текст на английском языке на тему « Looking for a job», используя лексику из учебника «Everyday English» (см. Приложение 1, распечатки 193-201). Постарайтесь запомнить как можно больше новых слов, используйте их в своем тексте. PAGEREF _Toc451518931 \h 22. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст «Choosing an Occupation» (см. Приложение 2 распечатки – стр. 192) PAGEREF _Toc451518932 \h 4Сделайте упражнения к тексту (см. Приложение 3 распечатки: упр. 6, стр.204, упр.7 стр.205, упр. 17, стр.212) PAGEREF _Toc451518933 \h 43. Повторите грамматику английского языка, сделав упражнения (см. Приложение 4 распечатки – упр. 2, 3 стр.285, упр.5, стр.286, упр.14, стр.292, упр.26-27, стр.298). Также из учебника Дроздовой сделать следующие упражнения: PAGEREF _Toc451518934 \h 9упр. 2 (I, II), стр. 73; упр.15, стр.77; PAGEREF _Toc451518935 \h 10упр. 1, стр. 103 (I), упр. 2, стр.104 PAGEREF _Toc451518936 \h 10упр.13, стр.115; PAGEREF _Toc451518937 \h 10упр. 1(I), стр.331. PAGEREF _Toc451518938 \h 104. Учебник Н.М. Дюкановой. Чтение и письменный (литературный) перевод текстов “Functions of management”, стр. 64-65, “Marketing”, стр.76. Знать слова, которые даны после текстов. PAGEREF _Toc451518939 \h 22


1. Составьте текст на английском языке на тему « Looking for a job», используя лексику из учебника «Everyday English» (см. Приложение 1, распечатки 193-201). Постарайтесь запомнить как можно больше новых слов, используйте их в своем тексте.

Looking for a job

Getting a job is a problem which every person earlier or later faces. To find a good job when your are young and do not have working experience is rather difficult.

There are many ways to get your first job. The first place where you can ask for a job is the organization where you are undergoing practical training.

Then you may ask your friends and relatives for help. You can also go to a personnel agency and look for it in newspapers. But tale into consideration that agencies take rather high fees for their service.

When you find an interesting vacancy, you are to prepare your resume. You should take into considerations your abilities and talents. Try to write only necessary information, tell about your education, experience, additional knowledge and skills. Don’t forget to write about your personal strengths and accomplishments.

The salary is important factor when looking for a job. Some companies have a bonus system of paying salaries.

Before the interview it’s better to get at least minimum information about the company you are planning to get a job.

Then choose suitable clothes and sleep well.

Try to keep an appointment. Coming late is a bad habit.

If you get a vacancy you must be ready to work in one command with a stuff under manager’s authority. After getting a job, you may have some unexpected troubles with boss, too: e.g. if you dye your hair or wear something not appropriate. The best solution of such situation is to ask a trade union for advice, which can always help you in your fight with an employer. Of course, if you affect company discipline not coming in time or working badly, your dismissal wouldn't be unfair. To conclude, I can say that it is sometimes hard not only to get a job, but also to work in the staff, and if you don't want to be laid off, you should follow company rules, it is a must.

2. Прочитайте и переведите письменно текст «Choosing an Occupation» (см. Приложение 2 распечатки – стр. 192)Сделайте упражнения к тексту (см. Приложение 3 распечатки: упр. 6, стр.204, упр.7 стр.205, упр. 17, стр.212)Choosing an occupation

One of the most difficult problems a young person faces is deciding what to do about a career. There are individuals, of course, who from the time they are six years old "know" that they want to be doctors or pilots or fire fighters, but the majority of us do not get around to making a decision about an occupation or career until somebody or something forces us to face the problem.

Choosing an occupation takes time, and there are a lot of things you have to think about as you try to decide what you would like to do. You may find that you will have to take special courses to qualify for a particular kind of work, or may find out that you will need to get some actual work experience to gain enough knowledge to qualify for a particular job.

Fortunately, there are a lot of people you can turn to for advice and help in making your decision. At most schools, there are teachers who are professionally qualified to counsel you and to give detailed information about job qualifications. And you can talk over your ideas with family members and friends who are always ready to listen and to offer suggestions. But even if you get other people involved in helping you make a decision, self evaluation is an important part of the decision-making process.

Выбор профессии

Одной из самых трудных проблем, которая стоит перед молодым человеком, является решение вопроса о будущей профессии. Конечно, есть отдельные личности, которые уже с шести лет «знают», что хотят стать докторами, летчиками или пожарниками, но большинство из нас не приступает к выбору профессии или карьеры до тех пор, пока кто-нибудь или что-нибудь не поставит нас перед необходимостью решать эту проблему.

Выбор профессии требует времени, и вы должны подумать о многом в процессе принятия решения, чем бы вы хотели заняться. Может оказаться, что вам нужно пройти специальные курсы, чтобы приобрести квалификацию для определенного вида работы, или окажется, что вам нужен некоторый опыт для овладения необходимыми знаниями, чтобы получить нужную работу.

К счастью, есть много людей, к которым вы можете обратиться за советом и помощью при принятии вами решения. В большинстве школ есть профессионально подготовленные для этого учителя, которые могут проконсультировать вас и дать вам подробную информацию о характере работ. Вы можете обсудить свои идеи с членами семьи и друзьями, которые всегда готовы выслушать и посоветовать. Но даже, если вы привлечете других людей, чтобы они помогли вам принять решение, все же самооценка — это важная часть процесса принятия решений.

Ex. 6 Choose the right word

a) job – position – occupation

“job” – anything that one has to do, task, duty;

“position” – a person’s relative place, as in society; rank, status;

“occupation” – that which chiefly engages one’s time; one’s trade

He was unemployed doing only odd job.

Knitting is a useful occupation for long winter evenings.

This aid is for those who have a very low position in society.

My sister occupies an important position in the Department of Health.

The police called the company to find out his occupation at the moment.

He had a hard job painting the car.

force— make

"force" - do smth by force or as if by force; compel;

"make" - to cause or force (followed by an infinitive without "to").

1. They made the confession from him.

The robbers forced the cashier lie on the floor and took the money.

They made me repeat the story again.

He would have never done it, but he was forced to do it.

leave— graduate

"leave" - graduate (school);

"graduate (from)" - to get a degree or diploma, to complete a course of study at a college/university.

He graduated from Columbia University last summer.

She left school 2 months ago and couldn't find a job.

What University did you graduate from?

Ex. 7. Fill in prepositions where necessary.

1) After leaving school a young person faces __ a very difficult problem – choosing an occupation.

2) The majority of young people do not get around to making a decision until they leave school.

3) Boys and girls seldom talk about this problem in (with)the family.

4) One has to take special courses to qualify for the job.

5) There is a special advisory service which counsels ___ people who are looking for work.

6) There are nonprofit agencies that deal with nonskilled positions.

7) This agency specializes in placing people on their qualifications.

8) The agency helped me find out the information I needed.

9) You can turn to your teacher for advice and help.

10) Counselors give practical advice about (on) interview techniques, application forms, etc.

11) He made an appointment with the career officer at 11 o'clock.

12) A counselor can see only a few applicants during a day.

13) An interview for any kind of job generally requires an appointment.

14) He was ___ 20 minutes late and created a negative impression on the employer.

15) American business people schedule their day hour by hour.

16) On the wall he saw a notice "The agency works by appointment only".

17) He didn't know how to fill in the application form.

18) It turned out that he travelled to the agency for nothing as he didn't make an appointment in advance.

19) Appointment is a necessary courtesy, you can't just drop in.

Ex. 17 Complete the following sentences using suitable words or phrases from the list below. Translate your sentences.

managing director, junior executive, colleague, Managing director; junior executive; colleague; director; supervisor; staff; senior executive; superior; employee; middle manager; subordinate; work-force.

1) The group of executives working below the top managers are generally called senior executives.

2) Valerie is an important person in our company. She is a member of the Board of directors.

3) Peter, a recent university graduate, has been with the firm for a year. He is at present a junior executive and is being trained for a managerial position.

4)Their work force is expanding rapidly. They now have over 5.000 employees.

5) At least 50% of our staff have been with the company over ten years.

6) Middle managers in an organization generally have more fringe benefits than lower-level managers.

7) We are a small group in the Research and Development Department. Fortunately, I get on well with all my colleagues.

8)Our telephone operators work under the direction of a supervisor.

9) I work under Mr. Brown. He's my superior.

10) Shelia and Tom work under my authority. I am their boss and they are my subordinates.

11) I am responsible for employee training and development.

12) A managing director is a person of high rank in an organization, usually next in importance to the Chairman.

1) Группу руководителей, работающих в подчинении топ-менеджеров, обычно называют высшими руководителями.

2) Валерия -это важный человек в нашей компании. Она является членом Совета директоров.

3) Петр, недавний выпускник университета, работает в фирме уже год. В настоящее время он младший исполнитель и проходит подготовку к руководящей должности. 

4)Рабочая сила компании стремительно расширяется. У них теперь есть более 5.000 сотрудников. 

5) Не менее 50% наших сотрудников работают в компании более десяти лет. 

6) Руководители среднего звена в организации, как правило, имеют больше социальных льгот, чем менеджеры низшего звена. 

7) Мы - небольшая группа в отделе исследований и разработок. К счастью, я в хороших отношениях со всеми моими коллегами. 

8)Наши телефонные операторы работают под руководством научного руководителя.

9) Я работаю под руководством г-на Брауна. Он мой начальник. 

10) Шейла и Том работают под моим руководством. Я их начальник, а они мои подчиненные.

11) Я несу ответственность за обучение и развитие сотрудников. 

12) Управляющий директор-это человек высокого ранга в организации, он, как правило, следующий по важности после руководителя.

3. Повторите грамматику английского языка, сделав упражнения (см. Приложение 4 распечатки – упр. 2, 3 стр.285, упр.5, стр.286, упр.14, стр.292, упр.26-27, стр.298). Также из учебника Дроздовой сделать следующие упражнения:упр. 2 (I, II), стр. 73; упр.15, стр.77;упр. 1, стр. 103 (I), упр. 2, стр.104упр.13, стр.115;упр. 1(I), стр.331.

Present and Past

Ex. 2. Choose the right alternative

1. Everything is going well. We didn’t have/ haven’t had any problems so far. (haven’t had is right)

2 Margaret didn't go / hasn't gone to work yesterday. She wasn't feeling well.

3 Look! That man over there wears /is wearing )the same sweater as you

4 Your son is much taller than when I last saw him. He grew / has grown a lot.

5 I still don't know what to do. I didn't decide / haven't decided yet.6 I wonder why Jim is / is being so nice to me today. He isn't usually like that.7 Jane had a book open in front of her but she didn't read / wasn't reading it.8 I wasn't very busy. I didn't have / wasn't having much to do.9 Mary wasn't happy in her new job at first but she begins /is beginning to enjoy it now.

10 After leaving school, Tim found / has found it very difficult to get a job.11 When Sue heard the news, she wasn't / hasn't been very pleased.12 This is a nice restaurant, isn't it? Is this the first time you are / you've been here?13 I need a new job. I'm doing / I've been doing the same job for too long.14 'Ann has gone out.' 'Oh, has she? What time did she go / has she gone?'15 'You look tired.' 'Yes, I've played / I've been playing basketball.'16 Where are you coming / do you come from?Are you American?17 I'd like to see Tina again. It's a long time since I saw her / that I didn't see her.18 Bob and Alice have been married since 20 years / for 20 years. 

Ex. 3 Complete the questions using a suitable verb

1. A: I’m looking for Paul. Have you seen him?

B: Yes, he was here a moment ago.

2. A: Why did you go to bed so early last night ?

B : Because I was feeling very tired.

3. A : Where are you going ?

B : Just to the post box. I want to post these letters. I'll be back in a few minutes.

4. A : Do you watch television every evening ?

B : No, only if there's a good program on.

5. A : Your house is very beautiful. How long have you been living  here ?

B : Nearly ten years.

6. A : How was your holiday ? Did you have a nice time ?

B : Yes, thanks. It was great.

7. A : Have you seen Julie recently ?

B : Yes, I met her a few days ago.

8. A : Can you describe the woman you saw ? What was she wearing?

B : A red sweater and black jeans.

9. A : I'm sorry to keep you waiting. Have you been waiting long ?

B : No, only about ten minutes.

10.A : How long does it take you to get to work in the morning ?

B : Usually about 45 minutes. It depends on the traffic.

11. A : Have you finished with that newspaper yet ?

B : No, I'm still reading it. I won't be long.

12. A : Have you ever been to the United States ?

B : No, never, but I went to Canada a few years ago.

Ex. 5 Put the verb in the correct form, past simple (I did), past continuous (I was doing) past perfect (I haad done) or past perfect continuous (I had been doing).

1.Yesterday afternoon Sharon went to the station to meet Paul. When she got there Paul had already waited for her. His train arrived early.

2. When I got home, Bill was lying on the sofa. The television was on but he wasn't watching it. He fell asleep and he was snoring loudly. I turned the television off and just then he had woken up.

Ex. 14. Complete B’s sentences using can/ could/ might/should/would + the verb in brackets. In some sentences you need to use have: must have…/ should have …etc. In some sentences you need the negative (can’t/couldn’t etc.)

1. A: I’m hungry.

B: But you’ve just had lunch. You can’t be hungry already.

2. A  I haven’t seen our neighbours for ages.

B:  No. They must have gone away.

3. A:  What’s the weather like? Is it raining?

B:  Not at the moment but it could rain later.

4.  A: Where has Julia gone?

B:  I’m not sure. She might have gone to the bank.

5. A:  I didn’t see you at John’s party last week.

B:  No, I had to work that evening, so I couldn’t go.

6. A:  I saw you at John’s party last week.

B:  No, you didn’t. You couldn’t have seen me. I didn’t go to John’s party.

7. A: When did you post the letter to Mary?

B:  This morning. So she should get it tomorrow.

Ex.26 Put in a/an or the where necessary. Leavw an empty space(-) if the sentence is already complete.

1. I don’t usually like staying at (-) hotels, but last summer we spent a few days at a very nuce hotel by the sea.

2. - Tennis is my favorite sport. I play once or twice a week if I can, but I'm not a very good player.

3. I won't be home for (-) dinner this evening. I'm meeting some friends after(-) work and we're going to the cinema.

4. (-) Unemployment is very high at the moment and it's very difficult for (-)people to find (-) work.

5. There was an accident as I was going (-) home last night. Two people were taken to (-) hospital. I think (-) most accidents are caused by (-)people driving too fast.

6. Carol is an economist. She used to work in the investment department of (-) Lloyds Bank. Now she works for an American bank in the United States.

7. A: What's the name of the hotel where you're staying?

B: The Imperial. It's in (-) Queen Street in the city center. It's near the station.

8. I have two brothers. The older one is training to be a pilot with (-)  British Airways. The younger one is still at (-) school When he leaves (-)  school, he hopes to go to (-) university to study (-) law.

Ex.27. Choose the right alternative

1. I’ll try to be on time but don’t worry if/when I’m late.

2. Don't throw that bag away. If you don't want it. I'll have it.

3. Please report to reception when you arrive at the hotel.

4. We've arranged to play tennis tomorrow but we won't play if it's raining.

5. Jennifer is in her final year at school. She still doesn't know what she's going to do when she leaves.

6. What would you do if you lost your keys?

7. I hope I'll be able to come to the party but I'll let you know if I can't.

8. I don't want to be disturbed, so don't phone me unless it's something important.

9. Please, sign the contract if you're happy with the conditions.

10. I like traveling by sea as long as it's not rough.

11. You might not remember the name of the hotel, so write it down in case if you forget it.

12. It's not cold now but take your coat with you in case it gets cold later.

13. Take your coat with you and then you can put it on if it gets cold later.

14. The television is always on, even if nobody is watching it.

15. Although we played very well, we lost the match.

16. We're not very close friends although we've known each other a long time.

17. When did you leave school ?' 'When I was 16.'

18. Ann will be surprised when she hears the news.

Учебник Дроздовой

Ex.2 p. 73 Put the verb in brackets into the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous.

I. (A, B)

1. Where were you going when I met in the street yesterday. – I was going to tell the watch-maker that he had forgotten to send my watch.

2. This, however, enabled him to add some ideas which he had omitted in the first copy.

3. They decided to rebuild the church when they found out that the cement used had begun to crumble.

4. He was so ill that he found himself unable to complete the work he had begun.

5. She turned the light back and lay on the sola and took up the hook she had begun reading.

6. His secretary took the paper from the table where he had put it and went out.

7. It was near midnight when they came in from dinner, still laughing at something he had said in the dining-room.

8. It was two o'clock. Eliza was suddenly thoroughly awake. She sat up in her bed and circled her knees with her arms. It was raining, the way it had been raining for days.

9. In his turn Jolyon looked back at his son. He wanted lo talk about many things that he had been unable to talk about all these years.

10. She was at the station after all, standing just as he had imagined, apart from the others.

11. He came back on Saturday, as he had promised. They all were waiting for him in the sitting-room. When he entered, everybody rushed forward to him to embrace and hug him in greeting.

12. The stale of his clothes indicated that he had been playing football in the muddy field.


 1. The woman busied herself with cooking, while the man sliced bacon and fired the stove.

2. He was up before the sun on the last day. A gale from the west had been blowing all night, making him wakeful.

3. It was a cold, harsh, winter day. There had been snow some hours before, and it lay, not deep, but hard-frozen on the ground.

 4. He tried to catch what they were saying, but they were too far from him and were speaking in very low voices.

5. As the wet twilight deepened, I stopped in a solitary bridle-path, which I had been pursuing an hour or more.

6. He was not so much surprised to see me as I had expected.

7. I had gone to bed and fallen asleep, when my guardian knocked at the door of my room and begged me to get up directly.

8. I had a wash and brush-up before starting out to go to the luncheon Elliot had invited me to, when they rang up from the reception to say that he was below.

9. Mrs Bedwin, who had been listening at the parlour door, hastened into the corridor in a breathless state.

10. Sara had been in her prediction. Madam Sharon's face was a picture the next morning when she found out that Sara had gone.

Ex. 15 p. 77 (B, C) Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Indefinite, the Future Indefinite, the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect and the Future-in-the-Past.

It was Ashley’s birthday and Melanie was giving him a surprise reception that night. Everyone knew about the reception, except Ashley. Even his children knew. Everyone in town who was nice had been invited. General Gordon and his family had graciously accepted the invitation. Alexander Stephens said he would be present if his ever-uncertain health permitted. Scarlett had never seen Melanie so excited or so happy.

“ You see, dear, Ashley has not had a birthday party since came here. And he works so hard and he’s so tired. When he gets home at night he will be surprised when everybody comes in!”

Melanie’s house blazed lights from every room. It was packed with guests. They overflowed on verandas and many were sitting on the benches in the dim lantern-hung yard.

Ex. 1, p.103 Put the following into indirect Speech.

I. (A)

1. I asked my friend, “How do you feel after your holiday?” – I asked my friend how he felt after his holiday.

2. “Ernie’s an educated man,” remarks Florrie. – Florrie remarks that Ernie’s an educated man.

3. "John never seems low or depressed," says Jane. - Jane says John never seems low or depressed.

4. Jack's father asked him, "Who are you writing a letter to?" - Jack's father asked him who he was writing a letter to.

5. "Jack is on the terrace. He is playing chess with his brother," says Nelly. – Nelly says Jack is on the terrace, he is playing chess with his brother.

6. I saw a cloud of smoke and asked, "What is burning?" – I saw a cloud of smoke and asked what was burning.

7. "I can't understand what he is talking about," replies Bessie. – Bessie replies she can’t understand what he is talking about.

8.I asked her, "Who gave you that watch?" – I asked her who had given her the watch.

9. "I'll tell you when I'll be back," Nora says to Jack. - Nora says Jack she’ll tell him when she’ll be back.

10. Mr. Nyman asked his wife, "How much do you spend on food every week?" - Mr. Nyman asked his wife, how much she spends on food every week.

11. "You have known me long," Barbara says to Martha. - Barbara says she has known Martha long.

12. "You're the best assistant I've ever had, Sheppey," he says. – He says Sheppey is the best assistant he has ever had.

13. Henry asked Tom, "Who did you visit in the hospital?" – Henry asked Tom who he had visited in hospital.

14. "He was born in Moscow," she says. – She says he was born in Moscow.

15. "We didn't have dinner there," the boy says. – The boy says they didn’t have dinner there.

16. "I was so thrilled and excited by the opera," Stella says to Maurice. - Stella says to Maurice she was thrilled and excited by the opera.

17. "When I came Jane was playing the piano," says Kitty. – Kitty says when she came Jane was playing the piano.

18. "When the doorbell rang I was writing a letter to John," says George. – George says when the doorbell rang he was writing a letter to John.

Ex. 2. p.104 (B, C) Put the verbs in brackets into the required past tense, pay attention to the Sequence of Tenses,

1. She heard the band playing and she knew that in a few moments the curtain would go up.

2. Mary thought he preferred to be by himself.

3. I heard from your mother that you would be late and so I ordered coffee and sandwiches.

4. Mrs Smith asked him if he would have dinner there.

5. The old man asked me if I had parents.

6. He was very sorry for Jennie, and he told his wife that he had to go out and see her.

7. And the other day I had a letter from him saying he would be in Moscow soon.

8. I said I would be back by 9 o'clock.

9. You promised you would try to persuade him to stay on for a bit.

10. In a few words I told him what had happened.

11. She asked me if I had lived long in that town.

12. When I rang her that evening she said she didn’t like to discuss those problems on the phone.

13. That evening she told me to be at the hotel number, and about half past eight I dialed that number, but there was no answer.

14. I put the papers back where they belonged, told the manager I had done no clipping or tearing, returned to the hotel, treated myself to a glass of milk in the coffee shop, and went to bed.

15. He wrote that he would come to lunch the following day.Ex. 13, p. 115(c) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form in the Active or the Passive.

Each of the children received a due share of Mrs Gerhardt’s attention. The little baby was looked after by her.

From the clink of dishes one could tell that supper was being prepared.

The front door of his house was unlocked as he had left it.

Mrs. Fripp came to inform her that dinner had already served.

His phrase was greeted by a strange laugh from a student who was sitting near the wall.

A note was brought in, addressed to Eleanor, and was put on the table to await her.

When the door closed, old Jolyon dropped his paer, and stared long and anxiously in front of him.

 To his knowing eyes the scene below could be easily explained.

The door was shut behind him.

Finally, his name was called, and the boy pushed forward to her.

But when autumn came the cows were driven home from the grass.

At lunch nothing was discussed but the latest news.

“Will you work on this new job all your life?” The question was askef with sincere interest.

She tapped on the door. John opened it.

Look! There’s nothing here. Everything has been taken away.

Ex. 1 p.331 (A, B) Translate the sentences from English ito Russian, paying special attention to the function of the Participle in the sentence.


1. The boy playing in the garden is my sister’s son.

2. You can get the recommended book in the library.

3.  He asked her to go on with her story, promising not to interrupt her again. 

4. Receiving no letters from her father, she called him.

5. He left the office at three o'clock, saying he would be back at five.

6. She stood leaning against the wall.

7. He lay on the sofa reading a newspaper.

8. Seeing her he raised his hat.

9. Having signed the letter the manager asked the secretary to send it off at once.

10. Informed of the arrival of the ship, they sent a car to the port.

11. Having lived in that town all his life, he knew it very well.

12. Having arranged everything, he went home on the 10.30 train.

13. Having been well prepared for the interview, he could answer all the questions.

14. Being checked with great care, try report didn't contain any errors.

15. These machines will be sent to the plant being constructed in this region.

16. Having been advised by the doctor to go to the south, she decided to spend her leave in Sochi.

17. Being told of his arrival, I went to see him

18. Having been three times seriously wounded, he was no longer fit for active service.

1. Мальчик, который играет в саду - сын моей сестры.2. Вы можете получить рекомендованную вам книгу в библиотеке.3. Он попросил ее продолжать историю, обещая не прерывать ее снова. 

4. Не получив писем от отца, она позвонила ему.5. Он вышел из офиса в три часа дня, сказав, что вернется к пяти. 6. Она стояла, прислонившись к стене.

7. Он лежал на диване и читал газету.

8. Увидев ее, он приподнял шляпу. 

9. Подписав письмо менеджер попросил секретаря отправить его сразу же.

10. По прибытии корабля, они отправили машину в порт.

11. Прожив в этом городе всю свою жизнь, он знал его очень хорошо. 12. Устроив все, он уехал домой поездом в 10.30.13. Хорошо подготовившись к интервью, он смог ответить на все вопросы.14. Проверьте доклад с особой тщательностью, не содержит ли он каких-либо ошибок. 

15. Эти машины будут отправлены на завод, который строится в этом регионе.

16. По совету врача, она решила провести свой отпуск в Сочи. 17.После того, как мне сообщили о его приезде, я отправился его навестить.18. Будучи трижды тяжело раненым, он был больше не пригоден к активной деятельности.

4. Учебник Н.М. Дюкановой. Чтение и письменный (литературный) перевод текстов “Functions of management”, стр. 64-65, “Marketing”, стр.76. Знать слова, которые даны после текстов.Functions of Management 

There is a statement: "Management is getting work done through people." Most of achievements in any society take place because groups of people get involved in joint effort. Almost everyone is, was, or someday will be a manager, i.e. the person who coordinates human, information, physical, and financial resources of an organization. In order to perform their functions adequately, managers need interpersonal, organizational, and technical skills. 

Management is a team of managers who are in charge of the organization at different levels. Regardless of the specific job, most managers perform five basic functions: 






Planning involves determining overall company objectives and deciding how these goals can best be achieved. Managers consider alternative plans before choosing a specific course of action at all managerial levels. Planning is listed the first management function because the others depend on it. However, even as managers move on to perform other functions, planning continues as goals and alternatives are further evaluated and revised. 

Organizing, the second management function, is putting the plan into action. Organizing involves allocating resources, especially human resources, so that the objectives can be attained; creating new positions and determining responsibilities. Staffing, i.e. choosing the right person for the right job, is also a part of the organizing function. 

Fourth is the day-to-day direction and supervision of employees. In directing, managers guide, teach, and motivate people so that they reach their potential abilities, and at the same time achieve the company goals set in the planning stage. At last managets control! and evaluate how well overall company objectives are being met. If there are any problems and objectives are not being met, changes need to be made in the company's organizational, or managerial, structure. In making changes, managers might have to go back and replan, reorganize, and redirect. Effective managers achieve the goals of the company through a successful combination of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. Personal business management is a one-semester course for the high school students. Its purpose is to provide students with a variety of tools necessary to meet future needs — making career decisions, managing money, providing economic security, managing credit, and keeping up to date with technology. It is useful for all the students for better understanding and adaptating to the financial world they will enter. A student examines his or her societal and personal expectations, needs and wants, controls and restraints both for the present and future. The emphasis is made on decision-making skills, planning and analysis. The informed person is better able to draw maximum benefit and is well-adjusted to the social, economic, and technological changes.

Функции управления

Существует утверждение: "Управление выполнение работы через других людей ". Большинство достижений в любом обществе состоялось благодаря тому, что группы людей, предпринимали совместные усилия для достижения чего-либо. Почти каждый человек когда-либо был или когда-нибудь будет менеджером, то есть человеком, который будет координировать людей, информацию, физические и финансовые ресурсы организации. Для того, чтобы выполнять свои функции адекватно, менеджеры должны иметь межличностные, организационные и технические навыки.

Менеджмент – это команда менеджеров, которые отвечают за организацию на различных уровнях. Вне зависимости от конкретного задания, большинство руководителей выполняет пять основных функций:



Руководство персоналом



Планирование включает определение целей компании и решение, как эти цели могут лучше всего быть достигнуты. Менеджеры рассматривают альтернативные планы прежде, чем выбрать определенный план действий на всех организаторских уровнях. Планирование является первой функцией управления, потому что все другие зависят от него. Однако, как раз когда менеджеры идут дальше, чтобы выполнить другие функции, планирование продолжает определять цели, и альтернативы, которые будут далее оцениваться и пересматриваться.

Организация, вторая функция управления, приводит план в действие. Организация включает ресурсы распределения, особенно человеческие ресурсы, так, чтобы цели могли быть достигнуты; создание новых положений и распределение обязанностей. Укомплектование персоналом, т.е. выбор правильного человека для правильной работы, является также частью функции организации.

Важной функцией управления является ежедневное направление и наблюдение сотрудников. Осуществляя направление, менеджеры ведут, учат и мотивируют людей так, чтобы они достигли своих потенциальных способностей, и в то же время достигли набора целей компании в перспективном проектировании.

Наконец контроль за управлением и оценивание того, как достигаются цели компании. Если есть какие-либо проблемы, и цели не достигаются, должны быть внесены изменения в организационную, или организаторскую, структуру компании. В процессе внесения изменений менеджерам, возможно, придется возвратиться и повторно запланировать, реорганизовать, и перенаправить деятельность компании. Эффективные менеджеры достигают целей компании через успешную комбинацию планирования, организации, управление персоналом, направлением и управлением деятельности организации.

Личное управление бизнесом является предметом, который изучается в течение одного полугодия учениками в средней школы. Его цель состоит в том, чтобы предоставить студентам множество инструментов, необходимых, чтобы удовлетворить будущие потребности — принятие карьерных решений, руководящих денег, обеспечение экономической безопасности, руководящего кредита и совершенствования с технологией. Это полезно для всех студентов для лучшего понимания и адаптирования к финансовому миру, в который они войдут.

Студент изучает свои социальные и личные ожидания, потребности и желания, контроль и ограничение как для настоящего, так и для будущего.Акцент делается на навыки принятия решений, планирование и анализ.

Информированный человек может лучше извлечь максимальную выгоду и хорошо приспособлен к социальным, экономическим и технологическим изменениям.


In modern terms, marketing is defined as the movement of goods and services from manufacturer to consumer in order to satisfy the customer and to achieve the company's objectives. It can be considered as dynamic field that involves a wide variety of activities.

The ABC of marketing is the so-called marketing mix. It includes the four P's: product, price, placement, and promotion.

Product (service) is often connected with development of a new product or service, searching the potential markets, and, finally, introduction it to the market. Target market selection is the most important task for any firm. A target market is a group of individuals who will probably buy the product. That involves the development of a marketing strategy. A successful marketing mix depends on the knowledge about consumers and their buying habits, gained through market research as well as correct identification of the target market.

Price is the most changeable element of all the four P's. Its definition is exchange of something of value for something else. There are three pricing options the company may take: above, with or below the prices its competitor are charging. For example, if the average price for blue jeans is $ 50, a company that charges $ 50, has priced with the market, a company that charges $ 47 has priced below the market, and a company that charged $ 53 has priced above the market. Most companies price with the market, selling their goods and services for average prices established by major producers in the industry known as price leaders.

Placement involves getting the product or service to the customer. This takes place through the channels of distribution. A common channel of distribution is:

Manufacturer – wholesaler – retailer – customer.

Promotion includes all kinds of communication with individuals, groups, or organizations to directly or indirectly facilitate exchange by informing and persuading them to accept an organization product or service. There are two major ways promotion occurs: through personal selling, as in a store; and through advertising, as in a newspaper. One should distinguish advertising campaign which can be developed by personnel within the firm or in conjunction with advertising agencies, and publicity, that is the means of communication transmitted through a mass media at no charge.

All marketing activities must be oriented toward creating and sustaining satisfying exchanges. Both the buyer and the seller must be satisfied. The first should be satisfied with goods, services or ideas obtained in the exchange. The seller should receive something of value, usually financial reward. All marketing variables are highly interrelated.

Marketing helps companies generate profit, the lifeblood of economy. About half of each consumer dollar is spent on marketing activities.


В современных условиях термин «маркетинг» можно определить как перемещение товаров и услуг от изготовителя к потребителю, с целью удовлетворить клиента и достигнуть целей компании.

Азбукой маркетинга является так называемый маркетинговый микс. Он включает в себя четыре P: продукт, цена, размещение, продвижение.

Продукт или услуга часто связаны с развитием нового продукта или услуги. Сначала подыскиваются потенциальные рынки, а потом продукт или услуга поступает на рынок. Целевой выбор рынка является самой важной задачей для любой фирмы. Целевой рынок является группой людей, которые, вероятно, купят продукт. Это представляет собой развитие маркетинговой стратегии. Успешный маркетинговый микс зависит от знания о потребителях и их покупательских привычках. Эти данные можно получить посредством исследования рынка, а также с помощью правильного исследования целевого рынка.

Цена наиболее изменчивый элемент из всех четырех Пи. Она представляет собой обмен что-то ценное для чего-то чего-либо ценного на что-то другое. Есть три варианта ценообразования, которые компания может выбрать: выше, или ниже цен, которые устанавливают конкуренты. Например, если средняя цена на голубые джинсы составляет $ 50, компания, которая оценивает их в $ 50 устанавливает цену одинаковую с рыночной стоимостью, компания, которая ставит цену $ 47 устанавливает цену ниже рыночной, а компания, которая устанавливает цену $ 53 имеет цену выше рыночной. Большинство компаний придерживаются рыночной стоимости, они продают свои товары и услуги по средним ценам, установленным крупными производителями.

Размещение включает в себя получение продукта или услуги клиентом. Это происходит по каналам распределения. Общий канал распределения представляется следующим образом:

Производитель - оптовик - розничный продавец - покупатель.

Продвижение включает в себя все виды связи с отдельными лицами, группами или организациями, которые непосредственно или косвенно способствуют обмену информацией, главная задача - убедить клиентов принять/купить продукт или услугу. Есть два основных способа по которым происходит продвижение товара: через личные продажи, как в магазине; и за счет рекламы, например, в газете. Следует различать рекламную кампанию, которая может быть разработана сотрудниками внутри фирмы, и совместно с рекламными агентствами, и общественность, которая является средством общения, прошедшего через средства массовой информации на безвозмездной основе.

Все маркетинговые мероприятия должны быть ориентированы на создание и поддержание удовлетворяющих все стороны обменов. И покупатель и продавец должны быть удовлетворены. Первый должен быть удовлетворен товарами, услугами и идеями, получаемыми в процессе обмена. Продавец должен получить взамен нечто ценное, как правило, финансовое вознаграждение. Все маркетинговые переменные тесно взаимосвязаны.

Маркетинг помогает компаниям генерировать прибыль, жизненную силу экономики. Около пятидесяти центов каждого потребителя тратится на маркетинговые мероприятия.

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